Thursday, 11 February 2016

Wednesday, 10 February 2016



ZigBee is a low-cost, low-power, wireless mesh network standard targeted at the wide development of long battery life devices in wireless control and monitoring applications. Zigbee devices have low latency, which further reduces average current. ZigBee chips are typically integrated with radios and with microcontrollers that have between 60-256 KB flashes memory. ZigBee operates in the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands: 2.4 GHz in most jurisdictions worldwide; 784 MHz in China, 868 MHz in Europe and 915 MHz in the USA and Australia. Data rates vary from 20 kbit/s (868 MHz band) to 250 kbit/s (2.4 GHz band).
The ZigBee network layer natively supports both star and tree networks, and generic mesh networking. Every network must have one coordinator device, tasked with its creation, the control of its parameters and basic maintenance. Within star networks, the coordinator must be the central node. Both trees and meshes allow the use of ZigBee routers to extend communication at the network level.
ZigBee builds on the physical layer and media access control defined in IEEE standard 802.15.4 for low-rate WPANs. The specification includes four additional key components: network layer, application layer, ZigBee device objects (ZDOs) and manufacturer-defined application objects which allow for customization and favor total integration. ZDOs are responsible for some tasks, including keeping track of device roles, managing requests to join a network, as well as device discovery and security.
ZigBee is one of the global standards of communication protocol formulated by the significant task force under the IEEE 802.15 working group. The fourth in the series, WPAN Low Rate/ZigBee is the newest and provides specifications for devices that have low data rates, consume very low power and are thus characterized by long battery life. Other standards like Bluetooth and IrDA address high data rate applications such as voice, video and LAN communications.

  • ZigBee Home Automation 1.2
  • Smart Energies 1.1b
  • Telecommunication Services 1.0
  • Health Care 1.0
  • RF4CE – Remote Control 1.0
  • RF4CE – Input Device 1.0
  • Remote Control 2.0
  • Light Link 1.0
  • IP 1.0
  • Building Automation 1.0
  • Gateway 1.0
  • Green Power 1.0 (Optional battery-less remote control feature of ZigBee 2012)
  • Retail Services

Friday, 18 September 2015

electronic project list-:
RF based Wireless Remote Control
Infrared (IR) sensor
Display System used in Restaurant
Wireless motor control through RF
Darkness Detector Alarm
Automatic night lamp
Piezo sensor as output
Traffic light signal
USB Mobile Charger Circuit Diagram
Water level controller cum indicator circuit diagram
DTMF Decoder
Remote Control For Home Appliances
Light sensor using photodiode
Working of light dependent resistor
Relay activation using TSOP 1738
Remote Controlled Toy Car
Touch switch
Audio amplifier
Fire alarm
Intruder alarm / Burglar alarm based Home Security System
Single switch motor on/off.. Clockwise/anticlockwise
Music (Data) transfer by IR by amplification
Color distinguished using LDR/Color sensor using LDR
Darkness detector
Water Sensor Circuit
Liquid level Alarm
Shadow Alarm using LDR
Wireless Switch Circuit Diagram
Variable power supply
Generating time delay with 555 IC
H-bridge using transistor
Water Tank Overflow Alarm
Automatic light/dark indicator
9-Way Clap Switch Circuit Diagram
RF based Intruder Alarm
BCD to 7 Segment display Circuit
Power failure alarm
Magic Eye Circuit Using 4049 IC
Night Lamp using 555
Automatic Wash Basin Tap Controller
Dancing LED's
555 Timer As Amplifier
RF based Fire Alarm (Overheat Alarm)
Water level indicator with display
Bathroom Light Off Timer
Remote Control for Devices using Cell Phone
2 in 1 Doorbell
Long range IR
Light detector
Electronic Letter Box
2-1 Quiz Buzzer
Music (Data) transfer by IR
Voltage Doubler Circuit Using IC555
555 Timer IC Tester
Understanding Decade Counter CD4017
Battery Level Indicator
Soil Moisture Detector
Simple AC to DC converter using bridge rectifier
Timer Circuit using IC CD 4060
Automatic Fan Speed Regulator
Piezo sensor as input
Transistor Tester Circuit Diagram
Electronic Dice Circuit
Transistor as audio amplifier
Light dependent frequency variation using LDR
Fixed voltage power supply
Opamp as comparator
Seismic sensor
Two Way Intercom
Touch Switch Circuit using 555 Timer
Low pass filter
Electronic Code Lock Circuit
Line Following Robot
Electronic Mosquito Repellent Circuit
Automatic Washroom Light Controller
Magic Eye using 555 Timer IC
Inverting amplifier using 741
Day and Night Indicator using IC 555
Electronic Circuit: Digital Stopwatch
Relay control by sound
LDR Based Automatic Lamp
Full range centigrade temperature sensor
Sound Operated Switch
Cell Phone Based Multiple Device Controller
Bi Color LED
Understanding JK flip flop using CD4027
Transistor based Security Alarm
Led Flasher Circuit
Electronic Door Bell
Overheat/Overcooling circuit breaker
Water Level Indicator with Display
Smart DC fan
Electronic Timer Circuit
Simple RPM Counter using IC 555
Sound Operated LED
Vehicle Indicator Circuit
Interfacing 4026 with 7 segment display
Active high trigger for 555 in monostable mode
High Pass Filter Circuit
IC 555 Based Message Display Circuit
Astable mode by NAND gate
Relay operation using Darlington Pair
Security Alarm for Doors, Almirah, cupboards using Opam
Luggage Security Alarm
Exhaust Fan Circuit Diagram
Random Number Generator Using 7 Segment Display
Humidity Detector Circuit
Sound Generation using 555
Hearing Aid
Relay control through mic
Understanding NOR Gate (CD4001)
4 Player Quiz Buzzer
Differential amplifier
Obstacle Avoiding Robot
Classroom Mic
Voltage boost by using a resistor with 78XX
Refrigerator Door Alarm
Electronic alarm for cash box, lockers
Clock with LED pendulum with tick tock sound
NAND gate monostable
Timer Based Code Lock
90 Second Timer
Electronic Code Locking System
LED Based Stop Watch
Parked Vehicle Indicator
Security System
Vehicle Indicator
Periodically Turning On & Off Mosquito Repellent Circuit Diagram
IR to RF Converter
Reminder Alarm
8 Player Quiz Buzzer
Conversion of NAND gate to Basic gates
NE 555 Timer based Automatic Headlight
IC555 based Multicolor LED Lamp Circuit Diagram
Toggle flip flop using CD4013
LED Lamp Using CA3140 IC
Negative supply using 555 IC
Variable power supply and charger with emergency light
CD4049 Based LED torch
DIY – Homemade Melody Door Bell
Curtain Opener Circuit
Simple Stepper Motor Driver using 555 Timer IC
Car Reverse Horn
NOT gate monostable
Tone generator Circuit Diagram
Suitcase Security Alarm
Number Guessing Game
UM3561 IC Based Security Alarm
Coin Toss/Flip Simulator Circuit
Multi Color Lighting
Electronic Lock using Switches
Variable Power Supply From Fixed Voltage Regulator
Window and Door Guard with Light Sensor
Voltage Doubler Circuit Using IC 4049
Timer Circuit using IC 4026
Safety Alarm Circuit
Secure room access system
Transistor Based Secret Bell
CD 4027 Based Emergency Lighting System
Audio Amplifier using Opam
PC Temperature Controller
Fading LEDs
Non inverting amplifier
Porch Light (Auto Turn Off Light) Circuit Diagram
Polarity cum Continuity Tester
Reaction Timer Game
Night Lamp with Timer for Stairs
Toggle switch using CD4017
Crossing Light Indicator
CD 4013 Based Two Way Switch
Flip Flop based Staircase Switch
Multitone Generator Circuit
Sound Scanner Circuit
Multi Sound Buzzer
LED Based Pendulum Circuit
Inverting amplifier 
CD 4013 based Sound Sensing Module
CD 4060IC based Message Display Circuit
Remote Tester Circuit
Intruder Alarm
FSK Modulators using IC 555
Coin Toss Circuit on 7 Segment Display
Sound generation in audio range
CD 4060 Based Security Alarm
Electronic Thermometer for Beverage Temperature Measurement
Automatic Power OFF timer for CD player
"Hit the Target" Game
Notepad Lamp
2-Digit Object Counter
Multi-Utility Flashing Light
NOR Gate as SR Flip Flop
DIY: LASER Based Pulse Transmitter and Receiver
ASK Modulator using 555 Timer IC
Conversion of NOR gate to Basic gates
NAND Gate as SR Flip Flop
Multipurpose Timer With Musical Alarm
Electronic Number Game
Pre Set Off Timer
Spell Effect Sign Display Circuit
Simple 2 Digit Auto-Manual Counter
CD4001 IC based Lighting System
Amplifier for Musical ICs
Inverting amplifier with signal feedback
Auto and Manual Pulse Generator
Direction Pointer
Circuit Diagram to Automatically Hibernate your PC
Zero Cross Detector (ZCD) Circuit
DIY : Short Range Optical Pulse Transmitter and Receiver
Logic State Indicator
DIY: Make Remote Operated Light Fountain
Waveform Generator using LM741

Wednesday, 22 July 2015

Let us discuss about working of mic 

                        mic converts sound signal to electricity 
                            loudspeaker converts electricity to sound signal.

Thursday, 16 July 2015


              FM transmission

How to do it?

need this :

1. Q1- Transistor- 2N3904

2. Capacitors- 4.7pF, 20pF, 0.001uF, 22nF.
Note: 0.001uF has code 102 and 22nF has code 223.
3. Variable capacitor: VC1. It is also called trimmer capacitor. You can buy one from your local store. The capacitance range should be 0-100pF or 10-100pF. If you cannot get one, try to get a trimmer capacitor that has minimum capacitance of 20pF. You can also get such capacitor from your broken radio, but you may need assistance in getting that out from your radio.

4. Resistors- 4.7 kilo Ohm, 470 Ohm
5. Condensor/ Electret Microphone

On your electret microphone, you will see that on one of the pins, there is solder pad connected to the case of microphone. Remember that pin is always negative.

6. Inductor- 0.1uF.
6-7 turns using 26 SWG wire.
You need to scrap the ends of inductor, otherwise, the inductor won’t work. Check the video given below to know how to make an inductor.

Or you can also use another inductor.
Learn to make an inductor for FM transmitter
7. Antenna: Use 15cm to 1 meter long wire for antenna. If you have a long antenna, the signal transmission will be better.
The following picture shows the components used for making FM transmitter. You can simply follow the steps shown below.
On the image shown below, you can notice that I have not used a trimmer/variable capacitor. I have used a fixed 20pF capacitor instead. So, if you don’t have a variable capacitor, you can use a fixed capacitor also.


Tuesday, 7 July 2015

Hello world ,
                        Have a good day, myself Mithilesh Gaikwad starting here a dashing blog. First I'm thankful about Google to give me an opportunity to share mine ideas with whole world.


Hi, friends this blog is all about electronics projects (for final year diploma/degree) This will provide you new ideas,concepts and other ects which may helps you to create your own project independently. 

  Today we will discuss about "How to do mini or mega project" 

1) Preperation of project
2) Choose perfect topic
3)know all about of topic
4) Arrange/assemble it
5) Find application
6)Try to find something new in it
          I think this is sufficient for starting so I hoped that We will met shortly.